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what is copper slag


Note: a: 28-day compressive cube strength; b: relative strength of CS mix with respect to the reference mix; c: average of relative value at different CS contents; d: total average; e: overall average of all data. When used in this manner, the slag helps to improve the properties of the concrete, and also serves as a form of recycling. Copper slag is an abrasive blasting grit made of granulated slag from metal smelting processes (also called iron silicate). Matte, crude mixture of molten sulfides formed as an intermediate product of the smelting of sulfide ores of metals, especially copper, nickel, and lead.Instead of being smelted directly to metal, copper ores are usually smelted to matte, preferably containing 40–45 percent copper along with iron and sulfur, which is then treated by converting in a Bessemer-type converter. Analysis of compressive strength data presented in the literature by various studies. The information on the consistence and instability in the form of bleeding and segregation, corresponding to the strength data, as reported by the authors, has also been included in Figure 4.7. General trends observed are summarised in Figure 4.6 and are described below: Figure 4.6. 200 sieve) in size. When mines extract copper, they often use sulfuric acid, which helps to separate the ore from the rest of the surrounding rock. However, the slag tends to be vitreous or “glassy,” which adversely affects its frictional properties (skid resistance), a potential problem if used in pavement surfaces. Copper slag blasting. Very good question. It is among the lowest cost per square foot abrasive, it has low consumption on new steel and it is environmentally friendly! Mobasher, Devaguptapu, & Arino, 1996; Pavéz et al., 2004, Environmental Impact, Case Studies and Standards and Specifications, Alternative inorganic binders based on alkali-activated metallurgical slags, Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites. Furthermore, for a given consistence, taking advantage of improved consistence resulting from the use of CS, the material can even be used to develop high-strength concrete and possibly high-performance concrete as well. Copper slag has also gained popularity in the building industry for use as a fill material. 7.11). ; Seal, R.R., Characteristics and Environmental Aspects of Slag: A Review. Ores that contain copper in the U.S. are typically mined in large, open-pits. Slag that is quenched in water produces angular granules which are disposed of as waste or utilized as discussed below. The air-cooled and granulated copper slag has a number of favorable mechanical properties for aggregate use, including excellent soundness characteristics, good abrasion resistance, and good stability. It is actually a byproduct of iron production. If you do not see your copper byproduct listed please contact Cal-Chem Metals to learn more about our services and custom solutions. These studies demonstrated that high compressive strength cements can be developed via alkali-activation of copper slags; however, the leachability of heavy metals from these inorganic cements remains unknown, which might limit their applicability as building materials. Slag blasting is also used to remove rust, paint, and other materials from the surface of metal or stone. Data from Gorai, B., Jana, R. K., & Premchand (2003). Some versions may contain heavy metal traces, which can contribute to air and water pollution. @JimmyT - You are right that mining copper can have a major negative impact on the habitat around a mine, especially for the streams and waterways. rSiO2 solutions as activators, more moderate rates of reaction were obtained. To be sure ,the slag is a combination of oxides of mpurities in the copper ore that float to the top of the melt and form as a glass. As the copper settles down in the smelter, due to metalization of copper, it has a higher density, impurities stay in the top layer and then are transported to a … Ironically, according to OSHA, beryllium is most dangerous when inhaled in small particles thus making abrasive blasting with coal or copper slag a potentially perfect delivery vehicle of beryllium-laden dust particles into a person's lungs. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Specimens cured at 60°C and 90°C, containing 50 wt.% copper slag showed comparable strengths to that obtained by samples with 100 wt.% copper slag. I didn't think it was really connected to the material that was being used. Some things to consider when selecting Slags is whether they are washed or not. However, by adopting the equal consistence design basis, the advantage could have been gained by reducing the water/cement ratio, as in this case the consistence has been shown to improve with increasing CS content. Since the copper smelting slag contains high content of Fe, Cu and valuable metals, interest in recycling it is increasing. When cooled, it becomes a glassy solid. As refineries draw metal out of copper ore, they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and rock. CKD that is not returned to the system, typically due to the presence of undesired constituents such as alkali metals, is disposed of in landfills, or sold for beneficial use. When added to concrete, it makes the paved surface less porous, which minimizes problems with moisture and freezing. Indeed, this is likely to be the main contributor to the variable trends observed in the strength data provided in the literature, and this can clearly be seen from all the data presented Table 4.3 in two forms, namely the studies where, perhaps prudently, the two sets of mixes, CS mix and the corresponding reference mix without CS, were made to have the same consistence, and these results are presented in Table 4.3(a), and where the water/cement ratio was considered as the prime factor and kept constant, even if the consistence was to vary, and these results are presented in Table 4.3(b). Typically, the majority of its composition is iron oxide and silicon dioxide, formed when molten slag … The material that float on top of the molten copper, which contains things not wanted in the copper is called slag. The strength of concrete can increase with CS content, Figure 4.6(a); The strength of concrete can increase with CS content up to a varying optimum level and then decrease with increasing CS content, but the strength of CS concrete remains higher than that of normal concrete, Figure 4.6(b), or goes below the normal concrete level, Figure 4.6(c); The strength of concrete can decrease with CS content, Figure 4.6(d). Slag and dross, which occur in significant amounts in every metallurgical process, have a very bad reputation as partially hazardous residues. Uranium, which may be co-located with copper ore, may also be recovered as a side stream, if economical. The article says it is a dust, but with the rock and other materials combined, it the slag powdery or it it more grainy like the consistency of sand? Is one material better than the other for certain situations, or are they both about equal? Effect of air-cooled and quenched copper slag (CS), sourced from the same batch, on the compressive strength of mortars (CS 1 and CS 2 ground to 300 and 400 m2/kg, respectively). The electric furnace or rotary slag-cleaning furnace are now generally used to perform this task, giving a level of copper in discard slag typically in the range of 0.55 wt.% and 1.3 wt.%, with most plants reporting copper losses in the discard slag in the range of 0.81.0 wt.%. The replacement of copper slag by copper mine tailings reduced the compressive strength of the alkali-activated cements (Fig. This elucidates that it might be possible to utilize existing stockpiles of copper slags for producing alkali-activated cements, and to contribute to remedying some of the existing environmental issues associated with the disposal of these slags. When the iron is processed using a blast furnace, slag and iron both collect at the bottom of the furnace.The molten slag must first be separated from the molten iron. What are the Different Types of Sandblasting Media. Additionally, the test specimens that have previously been reported to have a stability issue in the fresh state (as discussed in Section 4.3.2) may suffer from poor compaction, and in such a scenario, the strength of concrete is likely to be affected by the inhomogeneity of the mix. Michigan Department of Transportation Specifications consider reverberatory copper slag to be a conventional coarse and fine aggregate for HMA pavement (Gorai et al., 2003). Sharpshot Copper Slag Why Sharpshot Copper Slag? Air cooled, not water quenched. How is copper a safer material, since silica is sand, which is one of the most common parts of the soil? The copper is being produced from a copper concentrate containing around 30 - 35% of copper, iron and sulphur each along with around 12% of silica and 5% of calcium. Figure 7.13. Ahmari et al.70 assessed the effect of partially replacing copper slag by copper mine tailings, on the microstructure and mechanical performance of alkali-activated cements produced with these precursors. Adapted from Piatak, N.M.; Parsons, M.B. Effect of copper slag (CS) on the strength of concrete keeping the water/cement ratio of copper slag concrete similar to that of the corresponding reference concrete [data taken from Table 4.3(b)]. I believe most of the problem is not with the ore itself, but with the process that removes the ore. Kedia slag distinguishes from light-weight blasting slag, due to its high density property. Using blasting or high-pressure spraying techniques, companies can use copper slag to clean large smelting furnaces or equipment. This could have been caused by several factors relating to the mix proportioning, as well as the particle packing of aggregates in both sets of mixes, eliminating the advantage that could be accrued by the use of quenched CS as a cement constituent in the form of enhanced pozzolanic activity. Except for three sets of results showing unduly high values [see footnote of Table 4.3(b)], all the data obtained over the period 1987–2015 given in Table 4.3(b) were used in developing Figure 4.7, with a box-and-whisker plot at each CS level created to visualise data distribution and determine outliers. Therefore, it is customary to carry out matte smelting in stages, with the slag from the first matte smelting stage discarded, and slags from subsequent stages recycled to the first stage. Pune, Maharashtra, India, December 30 2020 (Wiredrelease) Prudour Pvt. One of the primary advantages to copper slag is the low risk it poses to health and the environment. Data from Chesner, W. H., Collins, R. J., & MacKay, M. H. (1998). Table 4.3. Also, would you be able to use the copper in a regular sand blasting machine, or would you need special equipment? Clearly, given the information available in the literature, there is scope for a fundamentally important study to be conducted to investigate the amorphous nature of the quenched glass and its pozzolanic reactivity, the variability attached to it and what benefits, if any, can be derived from it. Copper Slag is a good general purpose Abrasive, but in the finer sizes is exceptionally dusty. Copper slag is a disposable high-density blasting slag made from a by-product of copper production. Another issue to consider is the shear volume of slag produced during copper refining. 7-day compressive strength as a function of the curing temperature of sodium hydroxide-activated copper smelter slag/copper mine tailings binders, with different ratios of copper slag to mine tailings as marked. Air-cooled copper slag has a black color and glassy appearance. Are you are an abrasive blast worker or employer, inspector, engineer, industrial hygienist, plant/facility owner or government/military employee who performs work associated with the use of coal and copper slag abrasives? Collectively, these materials make up slag, which can be used for a surprising number of applications in the building and industrial fields. Although it would be expected that a reduction in water content at a given cement content for equal consistence would lead to strength improvement of the concrete mix, this has not always been realised [Table 4.3(a)]. Copper slag is a hard, cubical, and aggressive sandblasting media. A variety of factors influence scrap metal copper value. Also, what is the price difference between the two? Contractors may also use copper slag in place of sand during concrete construction. Figure 4.7. Copper is a heavy metal that is a commodity on many markets. Copper slag abrasive is suitable for blast cleaning of steel and stone/concrete surfaces, removal of mill scale, rust, old paint, dirt etc. Often rightly so, since the high heavy metal content does not allow its use as a mineral product. Because of the limited data available in the literature for this option, no clear optimum level of CS can be identified in Table 4.3(a), but on average, the use of CS as a sand component gives a 5% increase in strength for CS concrete compared to normal concrete. Mine wastes may contain radionuclides due to their natural presence in ores and can be a source of TENORM. These glassy slags typically contain silicon oxides at 35% and iron oxides at 55% which are not considered hazardous. Collectively, these materials make up slag, which can be used for a surprising number of applications in the building and industrial fields. Copper slag can also be used as a building material, formed into blocks. A recent study evaluated the feasibility of activating ancient copper slags from the north of Chile,69 and identified notable differences in the mineralogy and chemical composition depending on the slag source. Copper slag also has a high strength-to-weight ratio, making it an effective option in concrete, or as a fill material under the roadway. This material also has several limitations that users should be aware of before using copper slag. It has high friction angle due to a sharp angular shape. Copper Byproducts Below is a list of common copper byproducts that Cal-Chem Metals considers for procurement. I was also curious how the copper slag can be less harmful for your health compared to silica. During smelting, impurities become slag which floats on the molten metal. All metals would have some sort of waste products, but I don't know what qualities make something good for other uses. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. However, the slag will contain several percent of copper, and must be cleaned before discard. Abrasive blasting is used to clean and shape the surface of metal, stone, concrete and other materials. Currently, CKD waste is generally excluded from the definition of hazardous was… Copper wire. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 39 (2003), 299–313. Unlike many other fill materials, it poses relatively little threat to the environment. Typical physical and mechanical properties of copper slag. Upon CS production, the molten slag may either be air-cooled in an ambient environment or rapidly cooled by quenching it in a granulator. Copper slag is a by-product created during the copper smelting and refining process. This material represents a popular alternative to sand as a blasting medium in industrial cleaning. GC, geopolymer concrete; HPC, high-performance concrete; HSC, high-strength concrete; MO, mortar; NSC, normal-strength concrete; W.R.T, with respect to. However, in the United States this is not a general practice. 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In copper slag-free activated binders an optimal curing temperature of 75°C was identified, while in specimens containing 50–100 wt.% copper slag a higher curing temperature (90°C) yielded the best compressive strengths. The obtained trendline suggests that the strength of concrete increases with increasing CS content, up to 20%, and reaches a near-plateau situation of average 13% strength increase for 20 to 50% CS, beyond which the strength begins to decrease, and from 80% CS, it falls below that of the corresponding reference concrete., Copper Slag in Cement Manufacture and as Cementitious Material.

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