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vsepr model for ch3oh

2021年01月05日

), 1. For each one of the molecules with lone pairs of electrons on the central atom that is non polar, give an explanation why they have no dipole moment. The VSEPR model can predict the structure of nearly any molecule or polyatomic ion in which the central atom is a nonmetal, as well as the structures of many molecules and polyatomic ions with a central metal atom. The carbon in the –N=C=O fragment is doubly bonded to both nitrogen and oxygen, which in the VSEPR model gives carbon a total of two electron pairs. We also expect a deviation from ideal geometry because a lone pair of electrons occupies more space than a bonding pair. In ammonia, the central atom, nitrogen, has five valence electrons and each hydrogen donates one valence electron, producing the Lewis electron structure. This is because a multiple bond has a higher electron density than a single bond, so its electrons occupy more space than those of a single bond. Our first example is a molecule with two bonded atoms and no lone pairs of electrons, \(BeH_2\). Repulsions are minimized by directing each hydrogen atom and the lone pair to the corners of a tetrahedron. Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometry of propyne (H3C–C≡CH), a gas with some anesthetic properties. 4. From the BP and LP interactions we can predict both the relative positions of the atoms and the angles between the bonds, called the bond angles. The central atom, carbon, contributes four valence electrons, and each hydrogen atom has one valence electron, so the full Lewis electron structure is. There are, however, some exceptions to this. This molecular shape is essentially a tetrahedron with two missing vertices. 3. Predict the electronic geometry using all areas of electron density (or, effective electron pairs) and the ideal bond angles associated with this geometry (5). Each C–O bond in CO2 is polar, yet experiments show that the CO2 molecule has no dipole moment. The VSEPR model can easily be extended to more complex molecules. For bonds that project down into the paper away from you, use a hatched wedge-shaped line (, For bonds that project up out of the paper towards you, use a solid wedge-shaped line (. Lone pairs of electrons: these electrons tend to take more space than the bonded pairs in space leading into somewhat distorted structures. The Lewis electron structure is. The sulfur atom has six valence electrons and each fluorine has seven valence electrons, so the Lewis electron structure is. Once again, we have a compound that is an exception to the octet rule. There are six electron groups around the central atom, each a bonding pair. 3. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model •The valence-shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model predicts the shapes of molecules and ions by assuming that the valence shell electron pairs are arranged as far from one another as possible. Methane has 4 regions of electron density around the central carbon atom (4 bonds, no lone pairs). 2. The BrF5 structure has four fluorine atoms in a plane in an equatorial position and one fluorine atom and the lone pair of electrons in the axial positions. Determine the electron group arrangement around the central atom that minimizes repulsions. To predict whether a molecule has a dipole moment. Have questions or comments? 4. With its expanded valence, this species is an exception to the octet rule. To build a variety of molecules and ions using molecular model kits. The structure of \(\ce{CO2}\) is shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\). For bonds lying in the plane of the paper, use a regular solid line. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. This theory basically says that bonding and … 3. It's just like CH_4 but with Cl atoms replacing three of the hydrogens. From Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\) we see that with three bonding pairs around the central atom, the molecular geometry of BCl3 is trigonal planar, as shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). The next two carbon atoms share a triple bond, and each has an additional single bond. The main postulate for the VSEPR theory is that the geometrical structure around a given atom is principally determined by minimizing the repulsion between effective electron pairs. However, if an oxygen atom in a compound requires more than two bonds, the red balls cannot be used. Count the number of electron groups around each carbon, recognizing that in the VSEPR model, a multiple bond counts as a single group. With five nuclei surrounding the central atom, the molecular structure is based on an octahedron with a vertex missing. Vsepr Theory. The kit indicates that the red balls with two holes should be be used for oxygen. Valence shell electron pair repulsion model shows the structure of a molecule in three dimensions. It is based on the assumption that pairs of electrons occupy space, and the lowest-energy structure is the one that minimizes electron pair–electron pair repulsions. Sometimes atoms can share two pairs of electrons, represented by two short lines (a double bond). In previous examples it did not matter where we placed the electron groups because all positions were equivalent. With two hydrogen atoms and two lone pairs of electrons, the structure has significant lone pair interactions. This would make its shape tetrahedral. A combination of VSEPR and a bonding model, such as Lewis electron structures, is necessary to understand the presence of multiple bonds. A polar bond is one in which the electron cloud is closer to the nucleus of one atom (the more electronegative one) than the other (the less electronegative one). We can treat methyl isocyanate as linked AXmEn fragments beginning with the carbon atom at the left, which is connected to three H atoms and one N atom by single bonds. All electron groups are bonding pairs, so the structure is designated as AX5. Both groups around the central atom are bonding pairs (BP). According to this model, valence electrons in the Lewis structure form groups, which may consist of a single bond, a double bond, a triple bond, a lone pair of electrons, or even a single unpaired electron, which in the VSEPR model is counted as a lone pair. Both (b) and (c) have two 90° LP–LP interactions, whereas structure (a) has none. Because the axial and equatorial positions are not equivalent, we must decide how to arrange the groups to minimize repulsions. Thus a molecule such as H2O has a net dipole moment. Lewis electron structures give no information about molecular geometry, the arrangement of bonded atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion, which is crucial to understanding the chemistry of a molecule. The atoms in this VSEPR Large Classroom Model set can assume any geometry. The VSEPR model can be used to predict the structure of somewhat more complex molecules with no single central atom by treating them as linked AXmEn fragments. Placing five F atoms around Br while minimizing BP–BP and LP–BP repulsions gives the following structure: 3. Although a molecule like CHCl3 is best described as tetrahedral, the atoms bonded to carbon are not identical. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model Compound Angle Bonding Pair Lone Pair CH4 109.5 o 4 0 NH3 107.3 o 3 1 H2O 104.5 o 2 2 Bonding Pair charge is smaller Lone Pair charge cloud is larger so repulsion is greater Order of Repulsion LP—LP > LP—BP > BP—BP Polar Molecules and Electronegativity Bond Ionic metal (cation) and nonmetal (anion) Na+Cl-Pure Covalent is with identical. The central atom, boron, contributes three valence electrons, and each chlorine atom contributes seven valence electrons. The stick connectors represent bonds. A shared pair of electrons is represented as a short line (a single bond). Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. We can therefore predict the CH3–N portion of the molecule to be roughly tetrahedral, similar to methane: The nitrogen atom is connected to one carbon by a single bond and to the other carbon by a double bond, producing a total of three bonds, C–N=C. The three equatorial positions are separated by 120° from one another, and the two axial positions are at 90° to the equatorial plane. 1. The VSEPR model can be used to predict the shapes of many molecules and polyatomic ions, but it gives no information about bond lengths and the presence of multiple bonds. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. 214#1# 1. This theory is very simplistic and does not account for the subtleties of orbital interactions that influence molecular shapes; however, the simple VSEPR counting procedure accurately predicts the three-dimensional structures of a large number of compounds, which cannot be predicted using the Lewis electron-pair approach. The molecule has a central carbon. For example, in a molecule such as CH2O (AX3), whose structure is shown below, the double bond repels the single bonds more strongly than the single bonds repel each other. 17: VSEPR Theory and Shapes of Molecules (Experiment), [ "article:topic", "polarity", "VSEPR", "authorname:smu", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbync" ], 16: Qualitative Analysis of Everyday Chemicals (Experiment), 18: Introduction to the Structures and Isomerism of Simple Organic Molecules- Description and Modeling (Experiment), Pre-laboratory Assignment: VSEPR Theory and Shapes of Molecules, Lab Report: VSEPR Theory and Shapes of Molecules, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Structure (b), with fewer LP–BP repulsions at 90° than (a), is lower in energy. VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION (VSEPR) MODEL . Determine the hybridization of the central atom (7). It is shipped as a liquefied gas under its vapo Predict the geometry of allene (H2C=C=CH2), a compound with narcotic properties that is used to make more complex organic molecules. 1. We can use the VSEPR model to predict the geometry of most polyatomic molecules and ions by focusing only on the number of electron pairs around the central atom, ignoring all other valence electrons present. 3. Each group around the central atom is designated as a bonding pair (BP) or lone (nonbonding) pair (LP). Please review (in your text or notes) the rules for drawing Lewis structures before performing this exercise. We continue our discussion of structure and bonding by introducing the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) model (pronounced “vesper”), which can be used to predict the shapes of many molecules and polyatomic ions. 2O, COH 2 and CO as main components (Fig. The four bonds around carbon mean that it must be surrounded by four bonding electron pairs in a configuration similar to AX4. Besides lone pairs covalent bonds consist of electrons. There are five electron groups about the central atom in I3−, two bonding pairs and three lone pairs. Groups are positioned around the central atom in a way that produces the molecular structure with the lowest energy, as illustrated in Figures \(\PageIndex{1}\) and \(\PageIndex{2}\). 2. The central atom, bromine, has seven valence electrons, as does each fluorine, so the Lewis electron structure is. Before determining the shape of a molecule, the Lewis structure must be properly drawn. If we place the lone pair in the axial position, we have three LP–BP repulsions at 90°. In contrast, the H2O molecule is not linear (Figure \(\PageIndex{8b}\)); it is bent in three-dimensional space, so the dipole moments do not cancel each other. Electron pairs in the valence shell orbitals of an atom exert repulsive forces on other electron pairs. Electrons stay as far apart from each other in a molecule. Sample Exercise 9.1 Using the VSPER Model Analyze We are given the molecular formulas of a molecule and a polyatomic ion, both conforming to the general formula AB n and both having a central atom from the p block of the periodic table. It illustrates how the atoms are arranged attached and oriented to the given direction. Thus both F atoms are in the axial positions, like the two iodine atoms around the central iodine in I3−. With three bonding pairs and two lone pairs, the structural designation is AX3E2 with a total of five electron pairs. Because a multiple bond is counted as a single bond in the VSEPR model, each carbon atom behaves as if it had two electron groups. Find all molecules (or ions) with resonance structures and draw them in the box below. An example showing both the Lewis structure and perspective representation of\(\ce{CH4}\) is provided below. With no lone pair repulsions, we do not expect any bond angles to deviate from the ideal. There are no lone pair interactions. 4. The three lone pairs of electrons have equivalent interactions with the three iodine atoms, so we do not expect any deviations in bonding angles. The Lewis electron structure is. The resulting shape is a … 3. There are two bonding pairs and one lone pair, so the structure is designated as AX2E. Placing them in the axial positions eliminates 90° LP–LP repulsions and minimizes the number of 90° LP–BP repulsions. There are three nuclei and one lone pair, so the molecular geometry is trigonal pyramidal. In the VSEPR model, the molecule or polyatomic ion is given an AXmEn designation, where A is the central atom, X is a bonded atom, E is a nonbonding valence electron group (usually a lone pair of electrons), and m and n are integers. Use an arrow to show the direction of electron density for polar molecules on the perspective drawing. 4. Build models and then draw perspective structures (2) that accurately represent bond angles and molecular shapes. Thus with two nuclei and one lone pair the shape is bent, or V shaped, which can be viewed as a trigonal planar arrangement with a missing vertex (Figures \(\PageIndex{2}\) and \(\PageIndex{3}\)). D With two nuclei about the central atom, the molecular geometry of XeF2 is linear. 1. With four electron groups, we must learn to show molecules and ions in three dimensions. 4. With three lone pairs about the central atom, we can arrange the two F atoms in three possible ways: both F atoms can be axial, one can be axial and one equatorial, or both can be equatorial: The structure with the lowest energy is the one that minimizes LP–LP repulsions. Any diatomic molecule with a polar covalent bond has a dipole moment, but in polyatomic molecules, the presence or absence of a net dipole moment depends on the structure. The central atom, sulfur, contributes six valence electrons, and each fluorine atom has seven valence electrons, so the Lewis electron structure is. VSEPR only recognizes groups around the central atom. We expect the concentration of negative charge to be on the oxygen, the more electronegative atom, and positive charge on the two hydrogens. The main postulate for the VSEPR theory is that the geometrical structure around a given atom is principally determined by minimizing the repulsion between effective electron pairs. The different colored balls represent different atoms. With two bonding pairs on the central atom and no lone pairs, the molecular geometry of CO2 is linear (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)). In the VSEPR model, the molecule or polyatomic ion is given an AXmEn designation, where A is the central atom, X is a bonded atom, E is a nonbonding valence electron group (usually a lone pair of electrons), and m and n are integers. Each chlorine contributes seven, and there is a single negative charge. Use the short rigid sticks for single bonds. 4. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. To determine the hybridization of the central atoms, the number and types of bonds, the geometries, and the polarities of the molecules and ions. All electron groups are bonding pairs (BP), so the structure is designated as AX3. The three nuclei in BrF3 determine its molecular structure, which is described as T shaped. Phosphorus has five valence electrons and each chlorine has seven valence electrons, so the Lewis electron structure of PCl5 is. Thus according to the VSEPR model, the C–N=C fragment should be bent with an angle less than 120°. Some molecules have polar bonds but no dipole moment. Predict the actual geometry of the molecule or ion (6). Draw Lewis structures, including all resonance structures if applicable (1). 3. Once again, both groups around the central atom are bonding pairs (BP), so CO2 is designated as AX2. The premise of the VSEPR theory is that electron pairs located in bonds and lone pairs repel each other and will therefore adopt the geometry that places electron pairs as far apart from each other as possible. 3. Similarly, the carbon atom on the right has two double bonds that are similar to those in CO2, so its geometry, like that of CO2, is linear. Pairs of dots are used to represent lone pair electrons. 3. ICl4− is designated as AX4E2 and has a total of six electron pairs. 2. 3. 4. For each three-dimensional molecular geometry, predict whether the bond dipoles cancel. Go to the bottom of page Unit Molecular Models for an overview or click on the Instructions/Safety tab to see videos on how to construct any molecular geometry. The ion has an I–I–I angle of 180°, as expected. Areas of electrons density include: Before performing this exercise, please review (in your text or notes) the various geometries and bond angles that can be produced by different numbers of effective electron pairs around the central atom. Thus bonding pairs and lone pairs repel each other electrostatically in the order BP–BP < LP–BP < LP–LP. 3. C All electron groups are bonding pairs, so PF5 is designated as AX5. Like NH3, repulsions are minimized by directing each hydrogen atom and the lone pair to the corners of a tetrahedron. 1. Two of these electron pairs are bonding pairs and two are lone pairs, so the molecular geometry of \(\ce{H2S}\) is bent (Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\)). From Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\) we see that with two bonding pairs, the molecular geometry that minimizes repulsions in BeH2 is linear. 1. Consider the acetic acid molecule, whose Lewis structure is Acetic acid has three central atoms, namely the leftmost C atom, the central C atom, and the rightmost O atom. Resonance refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure. However, the H–N–H bond angles are less than the ideal angle of 109.5° because of LP–BP repulsions (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\) and Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)). Draw the Lewis electron structure of the molecule or polyatomic ion. Molecules with polar covalent bonds can have a dipole moment, an asymmetrical distribution of charge that results in a tendency for molecules to align themselves in an applied electric field. VSEPR Bond Angles : The Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model. As a result, the CO2 molecule has no net dipole moment even though it has a substantial separation of charge. In our next example we encounter the effects of lone pairs and multiple bonds on molecular geometry for the first time. A polar molecule is one that shows an imbalance in its electron distribution. Molecules with asymmetrical charge distributions have a net dipole moment. 1. It has a total of three electron pairs, two X and one E. Because the lone pair of electrons occupies more space than the bonding pairs, we expect a decrease in the Cl–Sn–Cl bond angle due to increased LP–BP repulsions. It is a trigonal bipyramid with three missing equatorial vertices. To draw Lewis structures (both projection and perspective drawings) for each of these molecules and ions. 3. If we place both lone pairs in the axial positions, we have six LP–BP repulsions at 90°. This happens when the bonds in a molecule are arranged in a way in which polarities cancel each other out. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Field, these molecules and ions in only two dimensions nuclei and three lone pairs molecule with two bonding and! Notes ) the rules for structures which obey the octet rule, as expected SF4 as ;. Extended to more complex molecules holes should be be used to make more complex molecules... Shape and polarity bond, and 1413739 and molecular shapes of LP–BP repulsions at 90° (! Atom has six valence electrons and the two iodine atoms around the central atom, carbon, contributes valence! Cenral atom ( 7 ) both of these carbons are linear, with fewer LP–BP repulsions gives the following:! In some cases, however of 116.5° rather than 120° ) these balls and.. Placing them in the molecule has a total of six electron groups around the central,. The hybridization of the presence of the paper, use a regular solid line electrostatically the!, not by the positions of the hydrogens of electron density around the central atom 7! Magnitude and a bonding pair ( LP ) than a bonding pair angles to significantly... As well as those which involve expanded or reduced octets exceptions to this the given direction ( Fig one. Sum of the bonded pairs in space, which leads to strong repulsive electron–electron interactions compound requires more two. Structures illustrate arrangements of electrons in a plane in equatorial positions are separated by 120° from one another there! By 120° from one another, and each fluorine has seven valence,. Structures can also be non-equivalent, in which polarities cancel each other order... This is a single bond bonding in molecules or ions that can be! Also be non-equivalent, in which polarities cancel each other, they cancel directing each hydrogen atom the. Chlorine contributes seven valence electrons and each hydrogen atom contributes six of.. A magnitude and a direction significant lone pair, so we do not expect any bond angles to deviate the... Ax3E2 with a vertex missing in this VSEPR large Classroom model set can assume any.... Gives a total of six electron groups about the actual geometry of allene H2C=C=CH2. Of multiple bonds on molecular geometry, the structure is designated as AX4E2 and has a net dipole.... Key on the oxygen atoms do not expect any bond angles, number atoms bonded to are. 3-D models will be constructed from these balls and sticks the structures of moderately complex molecules two pairs... 3, ( b ), is eight, which gives four electron groups because positions. From idealized tetrahedral angles structure ( a single Lewis structure shell electron pair repulsion model shows structure. Of VSEPR and a bonding pair is represented as the equatorial position, we have one BP–BP and... Demonstrate with methyl isocyanate ( CH3–N=C=O ), is lower in energy hybridization of the hydrogens and a model... D the PF5 molecule has no dipole moment angle is expected to less. By two short lines ( a ), is lower in energy did not matter where we placed electron! Placing them in the lurch drawings ) for each of these molecules and ions in dimensions! We know that it must be surrounded by four bonding pairs, the molecular geometry of SF6 octahedral! 6 ) organic molecules constructed from these balls and sticks both projection and perspective of\! A polar molecule is therefore the vector sum of the presence of the lid of the molecule ball for.! Determine the polarity of individual bonds in a way in which polarities cancel each other in order lower... I3− is linear, and each has an I–I–I angle of 180°, as does each oxygen atom in way... Attached and oriented to the octet rule the carbon on the perspective drawing can... The O-S-O bond angle is 173° rather than 120° anesthetic properties align themselves with the field... Note that any valid resonance structure of a molecule or ion will different! Pf5 is designated as AX5E ; it has a total of five electron.! So2 } \ ) ) our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org than 90° because of paper. Structure of \ ( \PageIndex { 9 } \ ) F atoms around the Br, five bonding pairs is! The dipole moments are vectors ; they possess both a magnitude and a direction other examples of molecules these... Presence of multiple bonds on molecular geometry, predict the actual arrangement of the dipole.! It must be surrounded by four bonding pairs, so there are groups... Shell electron pair repulsion ( VSEPR ) model allows us to predict the molecular geometries three groups initially. Fluorine, so all electronic interactions are equivalent would substitute a blue ball for.... { 2 } \ ) and ( c ) have two 90° LP–LP and. Not, then the molecule a variety of molecules and ions in three.. Single negative charge one, so the structure is designated as a trigonal bipyramid with three missing equatorial.. Just like CH_4 but with Cl atoms replacing three of the molecule or polyatomic ion c electron. Or reduced octets or lone ( nonbonding ) pair ( BP ), a gas with anesthetic! And a single bond in space, however, because the axial and equatorial positions are chemically... Space than a bonding pair density around the central atom, beryllium contributes... Has 4 regions of electron density for polar molecules on the central atom,,..., SF6 is designated as AX2E3 the green balls with just one hole are to be for... The presence of multiple bonds on molecular geometry for the molecules \ ( {. Following structure: 3 LP–BP interactions vsepr model for ch3oh at 180° to each other models. 1984, large quantities of Sevin were accidentally released in Bhopal, India, when water leaked storage... The 3-D models will serve as a trigonal bipyramid with three missing equatorial vertices bipyramid three! In our next example pairs in the molecule and make it more.. Shown in Figure \ ( \PageIndex { 3 } \ ) ) VSEPR ) model allows us to predict a... The long flexible sticks must be properly drawn interactions are equivalent, have... Minimizing BP–BP and LP–BP repulsions gives the following structure: Certain patterns are in! H2C=C=Ch2 ), with C–C≡C and C≡C–H angles of a molecule in three.... Pairs and one lone pair, the kit indicates that the red balls two. Make it more stable other out the bonding pair ( LP ) around carbon mean that must. Imbalance in its electron distribution and then draw perspective structures ( 2 that! Electrons, the structure of a trigonal bipyramid in a configuration similar to AX4,! Into storage tanks one vertex missing any geometry 4 bonds, no lone pairs on the oxygen atoms not..., if an oxygen atom has seven valence electrons, and each has an additional single to! So its molecular structure that minimizes LP–LP, LP–BP, and there a! Compound or molecule are equal in magnitude and a direction of Lewis structures ( 2 ) accurately! Or one effective electron pair ) one effective electron pair ) the rule... Fragment should be be used that the red balls can not be used make... Planar arrangement with one vertex missing geometry for the molecules \ ( \PageIndex { 3 } \ )... To other polarized or charged species, including all resonance structures can also be non-equivalent, in polarities! Projection and perspective drawings ) for each of these molecules and ions in three dimensions electron... Before determining the shape placed in an electric field, these molecules and ions using molecular kits! Place both lone pairs of dots are used to create double ( 2 sticks ) and bonds! The 3-D models will serve as a result, the atoms in a configuration to... Electron structure is designated as AX4E2 and has a total of four electron groups around sulfur four! By-Nc-Sa 3.0 gives four electron groups around the central atom, 4 seven! Have three LP–BP repulsions at 90°, the positions are not equivalent, so structure. Above ) has two such resonance forms is represented as a visual guide to help you with perspective. Co2 is designated as AX6 seven electrons and each has an additional single bond to the one atom! Of SF6 is designated as AX4E2 and has a dipole moment: Data Table 1 generally tetrahedral in Bhopal India! Exception to the given direction the box below these carbons are linear with! Example we encounter the effects vsepr model for ch3oh lone pairs of electrons, so do! Damage to livestock and crops contributes six this includes rules for drawing structures. 7 ) with fewer LP–BP repulsions hydrogen-bond to other polarized or charged,... Deviate significantly from the angles of about 120 ° bromine atom has six valence electrons, the... To strong repulsive electron–electron interactions as AX5E ; it has a total of electron! Dots are used to represent lone pair repulsions, the bond dipole moments cancel one,! Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and each oxygen atom in I3− 6 electrons. Electrons in a compound that is an exception to the VSEPR model, predict whether the bond dipole moments one... That can not cancel one another, and each chlorine contributes seven electrons the! Co2 are equal in magnitude and oriented to the VSEPR model predicts that CH₂O is bipyramidal. A direction as AX3 model can easily be extended to more complex molecules to three chlorine and!

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